Buy PV8-Crystal Online
Buy PV8-Crystal online: 4F-PV8 Crystals otherwise called 4f-a-pyrrolidinoheptiophenone, 4f-alpha-PHpP, and 4F-a-PEP with a CAS number of 99799-28-8, a chemical formula of C17H24FNO, an IUPAC name of 1-(4-fluorophenyl)- 2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)heptan-1-one, and a sub-atomic mass of 277.38. Since the synthetic is so new we will take a gander at its simple to adapt more which is 4-CL-PVP.
4-CL-PVP is another research compound and is characterized in the group of energizers. The chemical formula for 4-CL-PVP is C15H20ClNO with an IUPAC name of 1-(4-chlorophenyl)- 2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one 265.12 and a sub-atomic mass of 265.12.
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Pyrrolidinophenone-derived designer drugs, like α-PVP, are emerging drugs of interest. PV8 (hydrochloride) differs from α-PVP by having heptaphenone in place of the pentiophenone portion of the compound.
The physiological and toxicological properties of this compound are not known. PV8 is regulate as a Schedule I compound in the United States.This product is intend for research and forensic applications.
Other researchers have suggested that either diethylpropion or diethylcathinone would make a better model for structural reasons. Still others suggest that M-PPP (4’-methyl-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone) is a closer match.
Pv-8 crystal also known by 1-pentanone, 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) and 2pyrrolidin-1-yl-1-phenylpentan-1-one is often referred to as acting similar to α-PVP compound but is a highly developed research compound.
α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) is an analog of pyrovalerone, a psychoactive compound that is regulated as Schedule V in the United States. Pyrrolidinophenone-derived designer drugs, like α-PVP, are emerging drugs of interest.1,2 PV8 (hydrochloride) differs from α-PVP by having heptaphenone in place of the pentiophenone portion of the compound.
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WARNING This product is not for human or veterinary use. The physiological and toxicological properties of this compound are not known. This product is intended for forensic and research applications.
Effects of the new generation α-pyrrolidinophenones on spontaneous locomotor activities in mice, and on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the mouse striatum
Forensic Toxicology volume 36, pages334–350 (2018)
Pyrovalerone derivatives (α-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct branch of synthetic cathinones, a popular group of novel psychoactive substances, and exert strong psychostimulatory effects resulting from their high potency to inhibit dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine transporters, with negligible activity at the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. In contrast to the old generation α-pyrrolidinophenones, 3,4-MDPV and α-PVP, there is limited data on the pharmacology and toxicology of the novel analogs. Therefore, the present study assesses the in vivo effects of two new pyrovalerones, PV8 and PV9, along with those of α-PVP, on spontaneous locomotor activities of mice and extracellular DA and 5-HT levels in the mouse striatum.
Spontaneous locomotor activity was measured using Opto-Varimex Auto-Track. Effects of tested compounds on extracellular levels of DA and 5-HT in the striatum were studied by an in vivo microdialysis technique; their concentrations in dialysate fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.
α-PVP, PV8 and PV9 stimulated mice locomotor activity (an effect being blocked by D1-dopamine receptor antagonist, SCH 23390), and increased extracellular levels of DA and 5-HT in the striatum. Observed effects depend on dose, time and compound under investigation, with α-PVP being more potent than PV8 and PV9. When used at the same dose, the pyrovalerones produced effects significantly weaker than a model, old generation psychostimulant, methamphetamine.
Enhancement of dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a dominant role in the psychomotor stimulation caused by α-PVP, PV8 and PV9. Extending an aliphatic side chain beyond a certain point leads to the decrease in their potency in vivo.
Among recreational drug users, there has been a significant increase in the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in recent years. Drugs belonging to one of the most prevalent groups of NPS are synthetic cathinones endowed with psychostimulatory action, and synthetic cannabinoids . Synthetic cathinones emerged on the drug market in 2004 and since that time their number has been steadily increasing. To date, 118 synthetic cathinones have been detected. In 2015, these drugs constituted one-third of the total NPS seizures in the European Union, Norway and Turkey [1, 2]. Pyrovalerone derivatives (α-pyrrolidinophenones) form a distinct branch of synthetic cathinones. A key feature of the chemical structure of α-pyrrolidinophenones is the replacement of the primary or N-methyl amine with a pyrrolidine ring, and an extension of the α-carbon side chain. The most prominent member of the first generation of pyrovalerones is 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (3,4-MDPV), detected for the first time in Japan in 2007 [2, 3]. Following the scheduling of 3,4-MDPV in many countries, its further derivatives began to appear on the “recreational” drug market. The deletion of a 3,4-methylenedioxy group gave rise to α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP; “flakka”), which has been present on the European drug market since at least 2011 , and is one of the most prominent second generation pyrovalerones. Further modification of the α-carbon side chain length resulted in the introduction of new compounds, such as α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone (α-PBP), α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP; PV7), α-pyrrolidinoheptanophenone (α-PHPP; PV8), and α-pyrrolidinooctanophenone (α-POP; PV9) . The latest two compounds were detected for the first time in Japan in samples collected in 2013 [5, 6].
Despite their relatively short presence on the clandestine market, α-PVP, PV8 and PV9, along with their phenyl ring-substituted derivatives, have been responsible for numerous cases of acute poisonings and fatal overdoses. Acute intoxication with these compounds can produce a wide range of symptoms, including sympathomimetic toxidrome (tachycardia, hypertension, agitation, increased aggression, chest pain, cardiac arrest), liver failure, psychiatric disturbances (paranoid psychosis, hallucinations, panic attacks, and suicidal ideations), seizures and acid-base imbalance [2, 4, 7]. By the middle of 2015, α-PVP alone was responsible for 105 fatal intoxications in Europe . There are also reports of deaths from Japan, where PV8, PV9 and their substituted analogues were detected in biological samples taken postmortem [5, 8, 9].
Pyrovalerones exert strong psychostimulatory action, resulting from their high potency to block dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) transporters (DAT and NET, respectively), but lack empathogenic properties due to the negligible activity at the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT). In contrast to several designer cathinones, α-pyrrolidinophenones act only as monoamine reuptake inhibitors. They do not enhance the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. The potency of 3,4-MDPV and α-PVP to block DA reuptake, with IC50 values below 50 nM, is higher by at least one order of magnitude than that reported for methamphetamine and non-pyrovalerone cathinones [2, 10, 11]. It has been demonstrated that α-carbon side chain length is the key factor determining the affinity and uptake inhibition potency for DAT and NET, while the replacement of the pyrrolidine ring results in a loss of activity [12, 13]. Recent structure-activity studies show that, starting from α-PVP, subtraction of each carbon atom from the side chain results in a reduced potential to block DAT, but the extension of the side chain into PV7 and PV8 does not negatively affect the ability to inhibit DAT [10, 12]. Moreover, it is proposed that the ability to block DAT should improve with increasing bulk/lipophilicity of the side chain . However, in contrast, anecdotal information obtained from web sites and forums for NPS users suggests that PV8 and PV9 are generally considered weaker psychostimulants than 3,4-MDPV and α-PVP; therefore, the suggested doses of PV8 and PV9 are 3–10 times higher than those of α-PVP [14,15,16,17].
Although the pharmacological activity of α-PVP has been examined [10, 12, 18,19,20,21], to our knowledge there is only one paper on PV8 , and none on PV9. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to examine the effects of two scarcely studied pyrovalerones, PV8 and PV9, on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice, a widely-used behavioral test utilized to measure drug-induced psychomotor stimulation [18, 19]. The study also compares these results with the action of α-PVP, and that of methamphetamine, a classical, non-cathinone psychostimulant used as a reference compound (for chemical structures see Fig. 1). In order to determine whether the studied effects involve dopaminergic neurotransmission, two sets of experiments were performed. The first examined the effects of SCH 23390, a selective D1-DA receptor antagonist, on changes in mouse locomotor activity. The second used microdialysis to assess the drug-induced changes in extracellular DA levels in the ventral striata of freely-moving mice, and compared them with alterations of 5-HT.
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